Shifting toward "quality growth" is now at the top of the country's policy agenda. Governments at all levels nationwide now have a quiet but resolute commitment to fostering a new growth model that corrects the distortions created by decades of double-digit growth－including corruption, pollution, rising inequality and other structural imbalances.
Over most of the last 40 years, China focused on rapid land-based development, driven by local initiatives aimed at attracting infrastructure investment, human resources and tax revenues. The creation of special economic zones, industrial parks, and free-trade zones facilitated such development, as they benefited from the large pool of cheap labor migrating from rural areas.
Throughout this process, China used GDP growth as its main measure of success. This enabled the establishment of well-defined goals and incentives for local officials as they competed with one another. But it also caused serious problems－such as environmental damage, inequality, excessive debts, overcapacity and corruption.
Today, China's authorities are looking at a broader range of measures at the local and national levels that cover not just growth, but also quality of life. The vision behind this shift was articulated at the Communist Party of China's 19th National Congress last October, when General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed 14 policy areas critical to the development of "socialism with Chinese characteristics".
Among those imperatives was "adopting a new vision for development", which "ensures and improves living standards". This vision should be underpinned by a commitment to a "people-centered approach" and "harmony between humans and nature". Xi also emphasized strong governance, specifically "ensuring Party leadership over all work", "ensuring every dimension of governance is law-based," and "exercising full and rigorous governance over the Party."
The motivation behind the shift in China's development focus is no mystery. China is now the world's second-largest economy and accounts for nearly half of global growth. It has now largely caught up with the advanced countries in terms of infrastructure, trade, investment and industrialization. Continuing to strengthen its position on the world stage is now a matter of meeting and even exceeding global standards in areas ranging from sustainability to good governance.
Of course, addressing the challenges China faces will require plenty of trial and error－much like that which enabled its past development－not to mention acceptance of some economic casualties. For example, the decline of the industrial areas in Northeast China and the rise of modern, globally competitive manufacturing clusters in the Pearl and Yangtze River Deltas in Southeast China are two sides of the same coin. Market competition in China created both winners and losers, with the winners in the southeast taking entrepreneurs, talent and other resources from the losers in the northeast.
Managing the transformation of China's regional economies while preserving social stability will demand a careful balance between the old growth strategy exemplified by the losers and their heavy reliance on State-owned enterprises and public investment, and the new, more human-and capital-oriented approach being developed by the winners. In the process, China will need to take into account local factors, such as population trends, natural resources and the appeal of various regions to middle-income domestic tourists.
This rebalancing will require the central government to help relieve the debt burdens resulting from bankrupt projects in the losing regions, much like it did in the 1990s, when it wrote off the losses that SOEs incurred during the Asian financial crisis. This does not mean that China should rescue outdated and unprofitable local industries. Rather, it means preventing the sunk costs of China's past growth model from leaving entire regions trapped in low-quality growth and development, by enabling local people to develop innovative start-ups, while investing in projects that create new income opportunities.